Leonardo, Volume 34, Issue 1

February 2001



  • On The Need For More Rigorous Thinking About The Laws Of Form

The Leonardo Gallery

  • Gender And Computer Graphics Imaging: To Err May Be Salvation
  • La beauté tragique: Mapping the Militarization of Spatial Cultural Consciousness
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    The author investigates the militarization of immersive cultural consciousness, as initiated by the aerial bombardment of civilians at Guernica and during World War II. Parallel to this trend he observes an ambient-immersive impetus in post-war art, which he traces in the example of the Espace group, and in the currently developing technology of virtual reality.

  • A Painter's Eye Movements: A Study of Eye and Hand Movement during Portrait Drawing
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    The mental processes that al-low an artist to transform visual images-e.g. those of his model-into a picture on the canvas are not easily studied. The authors re-port work measuring the eye and hand movements of a single artist, chosen for his detailed and realis-tic portraits produced from life. His eye fixations when painting or drawing were of twice the duration of those when he was not painting and also quite different from those of novice artists. His eye-hand co-ordination pattern also showed dif-ferences from that of novices, be-ing more temporally consistent. This preliminary work suggests that detailed and quantitative analy-sis of a working artist is feasible and will illuminate the process of artistic creation.

  • Intermedia
  • Intermedia In Electronic Images
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    The essay focuses on the processes of intermedia in visual media. The author's analysis of the merging of still, moving and computed images reveals that, in intermedia, images tend to-ward a spatial, rather than temporal, organizing prin-ciple. This shift becomes evident in particular in the moving images in such elec-tronic films as Peter Greenaway's Prospero's Books. The limits of intermedia in the electronic medium are unfolded in the concept of the coherent im-age by Zbigniew Rybczynski. Another concept of com-pression and convergence is demonstrated by Clea T. Waite in her crossing two-and three-dimensionality in a video installation.

  • Music, Creativity and Scientific Thinking
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    Are music and sci-ence different types of intel-ligence (as posited in the context of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences), or are they two manifestations of common ways of think-ing? By focusing on scien-tists who have been musi-cians and on the ways they have used their musical knowledge to inform their scientific work, the author argues in this article that music and science are two ways of using a common set of “tools for thinking” that unify all disciplines. He explores the notion that cre-ative individuals are usually polymaths who think in trans-disciplinary ways.

  • A Performer's Lexicon of Synesthesia (Abridged)
  • The Russian Avant-Garde in the Briansk Region
  • The Domain of Images
  • Visual Analogy
  • Surfing Through Hyperspace: Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons
  • Abstracting Craft: The Practiced Digital Hand
  • Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer
  • The Nudist on the Late Shift and Other True Tales of Silicon Valley
  • Russian Cosmism and the Russian Avant-Garde
  • A Quest for Life: An Autobiography
  • Digital Dreams: New Works by Students from the Digital Media Program
  • Will Spiritual Robots Replace Humanity by 2100?
  • Art in Holography2
  • Materials Received
  • Leonardo/ISAST News. The Newsletter Of The International Society For The Arts, Sciences And Technology
  • Classified Advertisements

Artist's Article

  • World Wide Simultaneous Dance: Dancing the Connection between “Cyberplace” and the Global Landscape
    Get at MIT Press

    The author describes World Wide Simultaneous Dance, a project combining live perfor-mances and digital connectivity, designed to give visual hints of an image that cannot yet be visual-ized: people dancing at the same time around the world, in varying conditions of light and at varying local times, the planet seeming for a moment to stand still as the per-formers locked on to each others' signals. Technical considerations and performances are described. The author also discusses the ge-nealogy of this work and future work suggested by World Wide Si-multaneous Dance.

Artists' Statements

General Note

  • Abbott H. Thayer's Anticipation of a Computer-Based Method of Working
    Get at MIT Press

    This article describes the practice of Abbott H. Thayer (1849-1921) of working on several copies of the same painting, taking each to a different conclusion. It compares that method to the cur-rent computer-based practice of using the SAVE AS command to create copies of a digital artwork or design, which can then also be taken to different conclusions.

Special Section: Artists and War

Technical Notes

  • Brain Activities in a Skilled versus a Novice Artist: An fMRI Study
    Get at MIT Press

    Functional Magnetic Reso-nance Imaging (fMRI) scans of a skilled portrait artist and of a non-artist were made as each drew a series of faces. There was a dis-cernible increase in blood flow in the right-posterior parietal region of the brain for both the artist and non-artist during the task, a site normally associated with facial per-ception and processing. However, the level of activation appeared lower in the expert than in the nov-ice, suggesting that a skilled artist may process facial information more efficiently. In addition, the skilled artist showed greater acti-vation in the right frontal area of the brain than did the novice, which the author posits indicates that such an artist uses “higher-or-der” cognitive functions, such as the formation of associations and planning motor movements, when viewing and drawing a face.

New Media Dictionary

Special Section: Synesthesia and Intersenses

Leonardo Web Resources

Leonardo Reviews

  • Media Revolution: Electronic Media in the Transformation Process of Eastern and Central Europe (German Title: Ost-West Internet)
  • Time Travelling With Rosalind Brodsky