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Theremin International Resource Directory

Documents, Publications, Written Materials, Films and Other Resources on the Theremin; Archives, Museums, Libraries Containing Theremin Materials; Musical Works and Film Scores Written for the Theremin. Compiled by Matthias Sauer.

University Documents

Cox, David Harold. "The Music of Edgard Varèse," PhD diss. (Birmingham, AL: 1977) pp. 267--274, 554--573.

Glinsky, Albert Vincent. "The Theremin in the Emergence of Electronic Music," PhD diss. (New York: New York Univ., 1992).

Gojowy, Detlef. "Modern Music in the Soviet Union to 1930," PhD diss. (Göttingen: 1966) pp. 49--51, 205, 208.

Mattis, Olivia. "Edgard Varèse and the Visual Arts," PhD diss. (Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ., 1992) pp. 50, 60, 179, 239.

Mead, Rita Hursh. "Henry Cowell's New Music, 1925--1936: The Society, the Music Editions and the Recordings," PhD diss. (New York: 1978) pp. 352--357.

Rhea, Thomas La Mar. "The Evolution of Electronic Musical Instruments in the United States," PhD diss. (Nashville, TN: George Peabody College for Teachers, 1972) pp. 41--62.

Tan, M.H.-L. "The Free Music of Percy Grainger," PhD diss. (New York: Julliard School, 1971).

Monographs, Books and Independent Publications

Anfilov, Gleb. Physics and Music (Moskow: MIR, 1966) pp. 141--151, 192--193, 244--246.

Appleton, Jon H., and Perera, Ronald C., eds. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music (New Jersey: 1975) pp. 8, 9, 289.

Cage, John. Silence (Middletown, CT: Weslyan Univ. Press, 1939).

Chavez, Carlos. Toward a New Music (New York: 1937) pp. 162--165.

Cowell, Henry Dixon. New Musical Resources, Reprinted Ed. (New York: 1969) pp. 18, 64--66, 153.

Crowhurst, Norman H. Electronic Musical Instruments (Blue Ridge Summit, PA: 1971) pp. 78--80.

Ernst, David. The Evolution of Electronic Music (New York: 1977) p. xxviii.

Griffiths, Paul. A Guide to Electronic Music (London: 1979) p. 10.

Halbreich, Harry. Bohuslav Martinu. Werkverzeichnis, Dokumentation und Biographie (Zurich: 1968) p. 170.

Holmes, Thomas B. Electronic and Experimental Music (New York: 1985) pp. 42--46.

Humpert, Hans Ulrich. Elektronische Musik. Geschichte-Technik-Kompositionen (Mainz: 1987) p. 20.

Kloppenburg, Josef. Zum Stellenwert der Musik in den Filmen Alfred Hitchcock (Regensburg: 1987) pp. 89--92, 107--110.

Lertes, Peter. Elektrische Musik (Dresden and Leipzig: 1933) pp. 158, 167--171.

Meyer-Eppler, Werner. Elektrische Klangerzeugung. Elektronische Musik und synthetische Sprache (Bonn: 1949) pp. 106--108.

Palmer, Christopher. Miklós Rózsa: A Sketch of his Life and Work (London: 1974) pp. 32, 58.

Prieberg, Fred K. EM: Versuch einer Bilanz der elektronischen Musik (Freudenstadt: 1980) pp. 56, 160--163, 174--176.

Prieberg, Fred K. Musica ex Machina (Berlin, Frankfurt, Vienna: 1960) pp. 203--210, 240.

Prieberg, Fred K. Musik des technischen Zeitalters (Zurich, Freiburg: 1956) pp. 39--46.

Prieberg, Fred K. Musik in der Sowjetunion (Cologne: 1965) pp. 354--359.

Prieberg, Fred K. Musik unterm Strich. Panorama der neuen Musik (Freiburg: 1956) pp. 14.

Rózsa, Miklós. Double Life: The Autobiography of Miklós Rózsa (Tunbridge Wells: 1983) pp. 126--128.

Ruschkowski, André. Soundscapes. Elektronische Klangerzeugung und Musik (Berlin: 1990) pp. 18--23.

Schillinger, Frances. Joseph Schillinger. A Memoir by His Wife (New York: 1949 pp. 51--53, 97, 144--146, 153, 171, 197.

Schillinger, Joseph. The Schillinger System of Musical Composition, Book 12 (New York: 1941) pp. 1544--1547.

Schwarz, Boris. Music and Musical Life in Soviet Russia (Wilhelmshaven: 1982) pp. 91, 631.

Slonimsky, Nicolas. Perfect Pitch: A Life Story (New York: 1988) pp. 150--153.

Szigeti, Joseph. With Strings Attached. Reminiscences and Reflections, Reprinted Ed. (New York: 1979) pp. 225--229.

Winckelmann, Joachim. Das Theremin-Musikgerät (Berlin, 1932).

Articles and Essays

Anderson, John I., and Swirsky, Robert. "Outpost: Atari," Creative Computing 11, No. 3, 152--153 (1985).

Anonymous. "Electronic Musical Instruments," Electronics (December 1930) pp. 435.

Anonymous. "Electronic Musical Instruments of Europe and U.S.," Electronics (March 1933) pp. 65.

Anonymous. "Electrons in the Day's News," Electronics (November 1932) p. 365.

Anonymous. "First Entire Orchestra of Theremins Arouses Keen Interest," Radio Age (May 1930) n.p.

Anonymous. "Klönge durch Handgebörden erregen," Instrumentenbau-Zeitschrift 4 (April 1971) p. 310.

Anonymous. "Lucie Bigelow Rosen and the Theremin," Musical Opinion 73, No. 872 (1950) p. 483.

Anonymous. "New Electronic Instrument," Electronics (Dec. 1932) p. 376.

Anonymous. "Robot Composer of Music Knows 65,000 New Tunes," Popular Science (August 1940).

Anonymous. "Teletouch Corporation," Electronics (February 1937) pp. 26--28.

Anonymous. "Vom Theremin-Geröt zum Synthesizer," Instrumentenbau-Zeitschrift 7 (July 1977) p. 512.

Anonymous. "Yes, It's the Theremin," Making Music (November 1994) p. 11.

Bartók, Béla. "Die maschinelle Musik," Musiksprachen. Aufsätze und Vorträge (Reclam Bd. 353) (Leipzig: 1972) pp. 172--189.

Bechhold, J.H., ed., "Theremin's Sphärenmusik," Die Umschau 31 (1927) pp. 1013--1015.

Blitzstein, Marc. "Premieres and Experiments---1932," Modern Music 9, No. 3, 121--127 (1932).

Bode, Harald. "Die elektronischen Musikinstrumente," Elektron in Wissenschaft und Technik (1949) pp. 193--200.

Bunting, T.R. "Pitch Control for an Electronic Musical Instrument," Electronics (September 1932) pp. 287--289.

Doerschuk, Robert L. "Filmmaker Steve Martin Charts the Electronic Odyssey of Leon Theremin," Keyboard (February 1994) pp. 51--58.

Doerschuk, Robert L. "Keyboards in Russia: An Exclusive Eyewitness Report," Keyboard 13 (July 1987) pp. 87, 90, 92.

Doerschuk, Robert L. "Music in the Air. The Life and Legacy of Leon Theremin," Keyboard (February 1994) pp. 49--51.

Downes, Olin. "Theremin Opens a Musical Vista," The New York Times (29 January 1928) sec. 9, p. 4.

Einstein, Alfred. "Aetherwellen-Musik," Münchener Musik. Dur und Moll 6, No. 25, 5--6 (1927).

Ellis Marc. "Inside the Theremin," Popular Electronics (July 1991) pp. 66--67.

Ellis, Marc. "The Theremin: America's Six Decade Love Affair," in Popular Electronics (June 1991) pp. 66--67.

Ellis, Marc. "Theremin Contest Results!," Popular Electronics (April 1991) pp. 74--76.

Elson, Chris. "Film Review: Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey," The Paris New Music Review (October/November 1994) n.p.

Forrest, Peter. "Shadow Play," The Mix (December 1995) pp. 144--148.

Fox, Barry. "In the Moog," New Scientist 23 (30 December) p. 52.

Galeyev, Bulat M. "Auge in Auge mit Mephisto oder Das erstaunliche Leben des Lew Theremin," Sputnik (September 1992) pp. 100--105.

Galeyev, Bulat M. "In Memoriam: Leon Sergeyevich Theremin (1896--1993)," Leonardo 27, No. 2, 92--93 (1994).

Galeyev, Bulat M. "L.S. Termen: Faustus of the Twentieth Century," Leonardo 24, No. 5, 573--579 (1991).

Gronwald, E. "Selbstbau eines Theremin-Musikgerötes," Funk 15 (December 1935) pp. 793--797.

Henney, Keith, ed., "Teletouch Corporation," Electronics (February 1937) pp. 26--28.

Huth, Arno. "Elektrische Tonerzeugung," Die Musik 20, No. 1, 42--45 (October 1927).

Huth, Arno. "Wege zur elektrischen Musik," Der Auftakt 7 (December 1927) pp. 303--308.

Kühnelt, Wolf D. "Elektroakustische Musikinstrumente,"in René Block, ed., Für Augen und Ohren. Von der Spieluhr zum akustischen Environment (Berlin: 1980) pp. 51, 69.

Lawrence, Elliot. "New Sounds in Music," Song Hits 13, No. 4 (September 1949) p. 10.

Lempert, Matthias. "Die Legende lebt. Das historische Theremin mit moderner Synthesizer-Technik," Keys (March 1994) pp. 76--83.

Marks, Robert. "Theremin Plans Electrical Orchestra," Musical America 48 (15 September 1928) p. 25.

Mason, C.P. "Terpsitone. A New Electronic Novelty," Radio Craft (December 1936) p. 335.

Montague, Stephen. "Rediscovering Leon Theremin," Tempo, No. 177 (June 1991) pp. 18--23.

Moog, Robert A. "A Transistorized Theremin," Electronics World (January 1961) pp. 29--32.

Moog, Robert A. "Bourges Electronic Music Festival. A Gathering of Giants, Keyboard (October 1989) pp. 22--23.

Moog, Robert A. "Build the EM Theremin," Electronic Musician (February 1996) pp. 86--100.

Moog, Robert A. "It's Dr. Moog's Travelling Show of Controller Oddities," Keyboard (March 1993) pp. 44--49.

Moog, Robert A. "Leon Theremin 1896--1993," Electronic Musician (February 1994).

Moog, Robert A. "The Theremin," Radio and Television News (January 1954) pp. 37--39.

Moog, Robert A. "Theremin Virtuoso Clara Rockmore: Recollections of Genius," Keyboard (February 1994) pp. 58--184.

Raven-Hart, R. "The Development of Electrical Music," The Nineteenth Century 111, No. 663, 603--611 (1932).

Rhea, Thomas. "Clara Rockmore: The Art of the Theremin," Computer Music Journal 13, No. 1, 61--63 (1989).

Rhea, Thomas. "Electronic Perspectives: The Unkeyboards of Professor Theremin," Contemporary Keyboard 4, No. 9 (1978) p. 60.

Rosen, Lucie Bigelow. "A New Sound in the World," Music News 39, No. 6 (1947) p. 3.

Rosen, Lucie Bigelow. "The Theremin as a Musical Instrument," Musical Courier (July 1944) n.p.

Ruppel, Karl Heinz. "Drehscheibe der internationalen Musik," Melos 21, No. 11 (1954) p. 319.

Saraga, W. "An Electronic Musical Instrument with Photoelectric Cell as a Playing Manual," Electronic Engineering 17 (1945) pp. 601--603.

Sauer, Matthias. "Wie eine menschliche Stimme," Keys (March 1995) pp. 91--94. (Includes demonstration by Lydia Kavina on CD; see Discography.)

Schillinger, Joseph. "Electricity, the Liberator of Music," Modern Music Quarterly 8 (March 1931) pp. 26--31.

Schubert, Karl-Heinz. "Elektronische Musik. Von der Ätherwellengeige zur elektronischen Orgel," Jugend und Technik, Berlin 26, No. 12, 1028--1033 (1978).

Schultz, Ernest J. "A Simple Electronic Musical Instrument. The Theremin," Radio and Television News 42, No. 4 (1949) p. 66 .

Simonton, John. "Build this Theremin," Electronics Now (February 1996) pp. 31, 32, 56--59.

Smith, Leland. "Henry Cowell's Rhythmicana," Anuario Interamericano de Investigacion Musical 9 (1973) pp. 134--147.

Sterrit, David. "Theremin Plays Instrumental Role in Music History," Christian Science Monitor (20 September 1995) pp. 13, col. 4.

Stewart, Dave. "Music In The Air," Keyboard (July 1995).

Strobel, Heinrich. "Musik aus dem Äther," Musikblätter des Anbruchs 9, No. 10 (1927) p. 435

Theremin, Leon. "Mein Ziel," Berliner Tageblatt (1 October 1927) n.p.

Theremin, Leon. "Homage to Stokowski. Letter to the Editor," The New York Times (28 October 1928) sec. 9:8.

Theremin, Leon. "New Trails in Musical Creation," The Musical Leader 58 (6 March 1930) p. 19.

Warschauer, Frank. "Elektrische Tonerzeugung," Anbruch 9, No. 5 (May 1929) p. 215.

Weinberg, Gretchen. "An Interview with Mary-Ellen Bute," Film Culture No. 35 (Winter 1964--1965) pp. 25--28.

Wilkinson, Scott. "Interactive Light," Electronic Musician (December 1995) p. 162.

Wittig, Klaus. "MUSIC 2000 II. Gesten-Controller und andere neue Interfaces," Keyboards (September 1993) pp. 52--56.

Wittig, Klaus. "MUSIC 2000 VIII. Schöne Aussichten-Einige Szenarios," Keyboards (May 1994) pp. 60--68.

Miscellaneous: Booklets, Leaflets and Other Sources

Förster, Friedrich. "Festival of the Arts," program (Bad Gleichenberg: 1994).

Moog, Robert A. "A Technical and Historical Background on the Theremin," booklet (Leicester: 1992).

Moog, Robert A. "Liner Notes to CD DELOS 1014," The Art of the Theremin, Clara Rockmore (1987).

New York Film Festival. "Films Ed Wood and Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey," booklet (New York: 1994).

Pavlov, George, and Shchelkunov, Yaroslav. "1994 Model Professional Theremin from Russia," information sheet (Moscow: 1994).

RCA Theremin. "Service Notes," booklet (New York: 1929).

Stanford Centennial Celebration. "Technology and Music: The Beginning and Now," program (Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ., 1991).

"The Big Briar 'Series 91' Theremins," Information Bulletin No. 9201 (Leicester 1991).

"The Theremin Center for Electro-Acoustic Music," music conservatory information sheet (Moscow: 1992).

York, Robert K. "Restoration of the Theremin," Division of Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of Musical History, Catalog No. 67.10 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1994).

York, Robert K. "The Rhythmicon. An Electronic Rhythm Machine, Division of Musical Instruments," Catalog No. 66.502 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1992).


Goldberg and Sons (Company with limited liability; Inventor: Leon Theremin). "Methods and Facility for the Production of Tones (Musical Instrument)," German Empire Patent No. 443536 (filed 4 May 1927; patented 9 December 1924).

Herzfeld, Hugo (Inventor: Leon Theremin). "Musical Instrument with Toning Production by High-Frequency Vibrations," German Empire Patent No. 567 223 (filed 30 December 1932; patented 28 August 1927).

Theremin, Leon. "Method of an Apparatus for the Generation of Sounds," U.S. Patent No. 1 661058 (filed 5 Dec. 1925; patented 28 February 1928).


Big Briar, Inc. Mastering the Theremin, instructional video by Lydia Kavina and Robert Moog (Asheville, NC: 1995).

Martin, Steven M. Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey (1993).

Archives, Museums, Libraries

George H. Clark Collection. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. 20560, U.S.A. (Includes materials, letters and an RCA Theremin. See also Division of Electricity and Modern Physics: collection includes a Rhythmicon and an RCA Theremin.)

Joseph Schillinger Collection. New York Public Library at Lincoln Center, Music Division, 40 Lincoln Center Plaza, New York, NY 10023-7498, U.S.A. (Includes compositions, letters and manuscript materials)

Lila Acheson Wallace Library, The Juilliard School, New York. (Includes thesis by Tan, M.H.-L. "The Free Music of Percy Grainger," 1971)

Lucie Bigelow Rosen Archive. Caramoor Center for Music and the Arts, 816 Katonah, New York, NY 10536, U.S.A. (Collection of thereminist Lucie Bigelow Rosen. Includes original works for the theremin, letters, concert programs, manuscript materials, and circuit and schematic diagrams.)

Nicolai Berezowsky Papers. Butler Library, Columbia University, 535 West 114th Street, New York, NY 10027, U.S.A. (Includes letters from thereminist Lucie Bigelow Rosen)

Music Library, The Knoll, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, U.S.A.

Museumsinsel 1, D-80306 Munich, Germany. (Collection of electronic musical instruments including the "Aetherophon" by Koch & Sterzel AG, Dresden 1929)

Slonimsky Collection, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540-4820, U.S.A. (Letters)

Russian Works for Leon Theremin's Musical Instruments

Belunzow, Valerij. "Autoportrait N2," for theremin and organ (1991).

Belunzow, Valerij. "Fantasy," for theremin, xylophone and piano (1985).

Belunzow, Valerij. "Le Fantasie D'Arbat Tra I Campi Della Gubernia Voronez," for theremin and computer (1994).

Belunzow, Valerij. "Long Song," for theremin and radio-baton (1995).

Belunzow, Valerij. "The Light Goes Out," for theremin and piano (1987).

Campos, Jorgie. "Sequence," for theremin, trumpet and computer (1993).

Kavina, Lydia. "Antique Russia," for theremin, piano, viola, bassoon and chimes (1987).

Kavina, Lydia. "Chacone," for theremin and synthesizer (1990).

Kavina, Lydia. "In Whims of the Wind," for theremin, voice and piano (1994).

Kavina, Lydia. "Landscape," for four theremins (1989).

Kavina, Lydia. "Requiem," for theremin and synthesizer (1990).

Kavina, Lydia. "Romance," for voice, theremin and piano (1985).

Kavina, Lydia. "Suite," for theremin and piano (1989).

Kavina, Lydia. "Swamp Music," for theremin and digital sampler (1992).

Kavina, Lydia. "The Monologue," for theremin (1995).

Kavina, Lydia. "The Statue of a Soldier," for theremin and piano (1984).

Kavina, Lydia. "Two Preludes for Theremin and Piano" (1986).

Kisselev, Anatoly. "The Song on the Ruin," for theremin and synthesizers (1993).

Kosenko, Sergej. "The Distant Star," for theremin and synthesizer (1991).

Mamontova, Elena. "Piece for Theremin and Piano" (1993).

Nasarowa-Metner, Tatjana. "Vietnam Album," for theremin and orchestra (1982).

Pashchenko, Andrei F. "Symphonic Mystery," for theremin and orchestra (1923).

Rajeva, Olga. "The Sketch," for theremin and clarinet (1990).

Sokolov, Vladimir. "Oriental Dance, Echo, Vocalise, Russian Song," solo pieces for theremin and piano, 1929

Streletsky, Sergei. "Fantasy," for theremin and piano (pre 1989).

U.S. Works for Leon Theremin's Musical Instruments (1928--1938)

Cowell, Henry. "Concerto for Rhythmicon and Orchestra" (1932).

Cowell, Henry. "Music for Violin and Rhythmicon" (1932).

Grainger, Percy A. "Free Music," for theremin and string quartet (c. 1936).

Grainger, Percy A. "Free Music No. 1," for four theremins (1935).

Grainger, Percy A. "Free Music No. 2," for six theremins (1935--1936).

Harmati, Sandor. "Illusion," for theremin and piano (1933).

Mates, Edward B. "Nocturne," for theremin and piano (c. 1933).

Schillinger, Joseph. "First Airophonic Suite," op. 21, for RCA theremin and orchestra (1929).

Schillinger, Joseph. "Melody: Theremin and Piano" (1929).

Schillinger, Joseph. "Mouvement électrique et pathétique fur theremin and Piano" (1932).

Slonimsky, Nicolas. "Dream Scents," movement arranged from "Silouettes ibĘriennes" for theremin and piano (1934).

TakĘcs, JenĘ. "Movements Symphoniques," for theremin and orchestra (1938).

Valente, Riccardo. "Complaint---A Piece for Theremin," theremin and piano (1934).

Varèse, Edgard. "Ecuatorial," for solo baritone, four trumpets, four trombones, piano, organ, two theremins (fingerboard) and percussion (1934).

Wilckens, Friedrich. "Dance in the Moon," for theremin and piano (1933).

U.S. Works for Leon Theremin's Musical Instruments (after 1938)

Achron, Isidor. "Improvisation," for theremin and piano (1945).

Berezowsky, Nicolai. "Passacaglia," for theremin and orchestra (1947).

Browning, Mortimer. "Concerto in F," for theremin and orchestra (1939).

Cage, John. "Variations V," audiovisual performance, dance platform (1965).

Ehle, Robert C. "Martian Winterscape: A Fantasy for Theremin, Electronic Piano and Synthesizer" (1966--c. 1974).

Fuleihan, Anis. "Fantasy," concerto for theremin and orchestra (1945).

Haussermann, John. "Serenade," op. 23, No. 3, for theremin and piano (1944).

Haussermann, John. "Improvisata," op. 39, for theremin and string quartet (1950).

Higgins, Dick. "Graphis 24," for theremins and feedback (1958).

Hiller, Lejaren, and Baker, Robert. "Computer Cantata," for soprano, instrumental ensemble and two-channel tape recorder: includes theremin, Ondes Martenot or Trautonium (1963).

Kanitz, Ernest. "Concertino for theremin and Orchestra" (n.d., post-1938).

Kemmer, George. "Pastoral," for theremin and piano, organ or harp (1947).

Martinu, Bohuslav. "Fantasy," for theremin, oboe, string quartet and piano (1945).

Sitsky, Larry. "The Legions of Asmodeus," for four theremins (1975).

Szanto, JenĘ. "Chant du Soir," for theremin and piano (1939).

Leon Theremin's Musical Instruments from other Countries

Antunes, Jorge. "Mixolydia," for theremin and tape (Bourges/Paris: 1995).

Antunes, Jorge. "Petite Pièce Aléatoire," for theremin, piano and voice (Rio de Janeiro: 1966).

Harrison, Paul C. "Bedlam!," for theremin, Keyboard and Electronics (Edinburgh: 1995).

Harrison, Paul C. "Elegy," for theremin and piano (Edinburgh, U.K.: 1995).

RĘhman, Malte. "Die gefiederte Schlange," for theremin and piano (Itzehoe, Germany: 1994).

Theremin Orchestral Parts

Bazelon, Irwin. "Ballet Centauri 17" (1960).

Copland, Aaron. The Second Hurricane, opera (1937).

Del Tredici, David. "In Wonderland" (1975).

Del Tredici, David. "Final Alice" (1976).

Ives, Charles. Fourth Symphony (1909--1916). Optional "ether organ," presumably theremin, added c. 1928. The first and third movements are photocopies of the composer's holograph; the second movement is printed, originally issued in New Music 2, No. 2 (1929)

Schnittke, Alfred. "Nagasaki Oratorio" (1958).

Von Hofe, Fred. Music for Othello, Guy Joosten production of Shakespeare's Othello, Thalia Theater Hamburg (1993).

Waits, Tom, and Wilson, Robert. Alice in Wonderland, musical, Thalia Theater, Hamburg (1993).

The Theremin in Film Scores

Dolan, Robert E. Lady in the Dark (1944).

Grofé, Ferde. Rocketship X-M, Kurt Newmann, dir. (1950).

Herrmann, Bernard. The Day the Earth Stood Still, Robert Wise, dir. (1951) (includes four theremins).

Popov, Gavreil. Komsomol---The Patron of Electrification (Russia: 1934).

Rózsa, Miklós. Spellbound, Alfred Hitchcock, dir. (1945).

Rózsa, Miklós. The Lost Weekend, Billy Wilder, dir. (1945).

Rózsa, Miklós. The Red House, Delmer Daves, dir. (1947).

Steiner, Max. King Kong, Merian C. Cooper, dir. (1933).

Wallace, Oliver. Alice in Wonderland, Clyde Geronimi, dir. (1951).

Waxman, Franz. Bride of Frankenstein, James Whale, dir. (1935).

Webb, Roy. The Spiral Staircase, Robert Siodmak, dir. (1946).

Received 12 August 1998

Updated 2 November 2005

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