Science is similar to a game, as both involve rules-based participation in search of optimal outcomes. Supported by key texts in history and philosophy of science, the authors propose a game-based model for understanding scientific inquiry and practice, particularly through computational resources. They conclude that this model creates space for more speculative and reflective approaches to scientific practice and can contribute to the design and development of better scientific software, simulation and visualization.
Water issues in the western United States include a long history of struggle, controversy and politics. Collaboration and compromise are required to achieve desirable outcomes in water quality and water rights.
Edward Lorenz, a pioneering figure in the field of chaos theory, coined the phrase “butterfly effect” and posed the well-known question “Does the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?” In posing the question, Lorenz sought to highlight the intrinsic difficulty of predicting the long-term behavior of complex systems that are sensitive to initial conditions, for example, the weather and climate; these systems are often referred to as chaotic.