Leonardo, Volume 35, Issue 1

February 2002



The Leonardo Gallery

Artists' Articles

  • The Community Is Watching, and Replying: Art in Public Places and Spaces
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    The author describes her public-art projects and installa-tions, in which she has em-ployed various combinations of video, photography, audio, sculpture and performance, often in collaboration with artist Molly Cleator. The pieces spectacularize unresolved conflicts between the artists regarding what is personally truthful as compared to what society dictates, especially concerning the “three deviants”: women, art and nature. The artists question who defines these related realities and how. The author has also offered hundreds of artists a forum called L.A. Freewaves, a media arts organization and festival working in traditional and nontraditional venues throughout Los Angeles, in an effort to disseminate community-empowering public art widely.

  • Analytical Photography: Portraiture, from the Index to the Epidermis
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    The current abundance of scholarship concerning the technological development of photography has coexisted with a proportionate absence of recent critical analysis of photographic images. Given photography's long-standing embrace of technological advances, even predating the portable camera or roll film, this article revisits some early uses of scientific photography in order to clarify the impact of digital technology on contempo-rary photographic practice. The author uses scientific photogra-phy and photographic archives as the groundwork for photo-graphic experiments into what might be called analytical photography. The essay con-cludes with a reconsideration of the photographic portrait.

  • Color Plates
  • A Self-Defining Game for One Player: On the Nature of Creativity and the Possibility of Creative Computer Programs
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    The AARON program has been generating original artworks for almost 30 years, but is denied by its own author to be creative. The author characterizes creativity as a directed movement towards an illdefined but strongly felt end-state for the individual's work as a whole, not as a characteristic of any single work and profoundly knowledge-based in the sense of externalizing the individual's internal worldmodel and system of belief. He suggests that a creative program would be one that was able to modify the belief-based criteria that inform the rule-base in which expert knowledge is represented, not one that is able simply to modify the rule-base itself.

  • Structure in Art Practice: Technology as an Agent for Concept Development
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    The exhibition Constructs and Re-Constructions provided a survey of the author's artwork and formed the basis for this paper. It included four prints, consisting of notes based on early documentation, representing four different conceptual stages in using computer technology. As each is discussed in turn, it is shown that the computer provides a significant enhancement to our ability to handle and consider the underlying structures of artworks and art systems in the many forms that they may take. In the work discussed, while the conceptual developments are the key issues, the role of the technology in encouraging, enabling and inspiring them has also been central.

  • Drawing as a Gateway to Computer-Human Integration
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    In the process of creativity, digital technology offers new ways to translate and transform. The author presents his approach to drawing as a gateway to exploring these possibilities. His particular concern is with the notion of computer-human integration. He suggests that possibilities offered by such integration will enable forms of expression unique to this process to emerge. Two systems that the author has used to further his search are described. His reflections on how a particular system of computer-human integration might develop in the future are noted.

  • A Collaborative and Interdisciplinary Computer Animation Course
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    Animation has always required a close collaboration between artists and scientists, poets and engineers. Current trends in computer animation have made successful and effective teamwork a necessity. To address these issues, the authors have developed an interdisciplinary computer animation course for artists and scientists, in which student teams produce a professional animation that extends the capabilities of a commercial animation package. A key component of this course is the use of collaborative teams that provide practical experience and cross-mixing of student exper-tise. Another key component is group-based education: the students learn from each other, as well as from the instructors.

  • Interaction in an IVR Museum of Color: Constructivism Meets Virtual Reality
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    Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) environments would seem naturally to lend themselves to hands-on approaches to learning, but the success of such virtual “direct experience” depends heavily on the design of interface and interaction techniques. IVR presents surprisingly difficult interface challenges, and the study of interface and interaction design for educational IVR use is just beginning. In this paper, the authors discuss three issues encountered in the creation of an IVR-based educational project: the use of architectural spaces for structuring a sequence of modules, the tradeoffs between metaphorical fidelity and convenience, and the use of IVR in interaction with visualizations of abstract concepts.

  • Global Interests: Renaissance Art Between East and West
  • Why Art Cannot Be Taught: A Handbook for Art Students
  • Multimedia, From Wagner to Virtual Reality
  • Robosapiens: Evolution of a New Species
  • The Eye's Mind: Literary Modernism and Visual Culture
  • Vermeer's Camera: Uncovering the Truth Behind the Masterpieces
  • Stargazing: Astronomy Without a Telescope
  • New Wombs: Electronic Bodies and Architectural Disorders
  • Art and Technology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • Structure in Science and Art
  • The Life of a Style: Beginnings and Endings in the Narrative History of Art
  • 1000 Extra/Ordinary Objects
  • The Universe Unveiled: Instruments and Images Through History
  • Sullivan's City: The Meaning of Ornament for Louis Sullivan
  • Whole Earth Review
  • Materials Received
  • Leonardo/ISAST News. The Newsletter of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology

General Article

  • Dance-Making on the Internet: Can On-Line Choreographic Projects Foster Creativity in the User-Participant?
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    Interactive Internet artworks invite viewers to become involved as user-participants as the creative process unfolds. Through analysis of selected Internet projects, the authors discuss the potential for facilitating an interactive, creative experience for participants in the process of making dance. This study was carried out in 1998 and 1999, but the findings remain relevant, as there have been few subsequent develop-ments in the field.

General Note

  • Is One Eye Better Than Two When Viewing Pictorial Art?
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    During viewing of most objects in one's everyday environment, the binocular and monocular relative depth cues interact in a harmonious, concordant and reinforcing manner to provide perceptual stability. However, when one views pictorial art, these binocular and monocular cues are discordant, and thus a perceptual “cue conflict” arises. This acts to reduce the relative apparent perceived distance of objects in a painting, thus producing overall perceptual depth “flattening.” The theory and physiology underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

Historical Perspective

  • Ancient Images and New Technologies: The Semiotics of the Web
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    The article develops an analysis of visual knowledge and the use of pictures in electronic communication. The author focuses in particular on indexical images, which we use in navigat-ing multimedia documents and the Web. For this purpose, the author bases his study on the one hand on semiotics, the core concepts of which were intro-duced by C.S. Peirce at the beginning of the last century; and on the other hand on a more classical historical analy-sis, in order to point out the deep roots of the concepts used in contemporary computer-based communication.

Special Section: Creativity and Cognition

  • Introduction: Creativity and Cognition Part I: Perspectives from the Third Symposium

Special Section: SIGGRAPH Educators Program

New Media Dictionary

Leonardo Reviews