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Virtual Art and Artists

Compiled by Frank Popper. E-mail: fpopper@club-internet. fr


For the bibliography and its companion list of artists of my book devoted to Virtual Art, I have chosen writings and web-sites that are likely to suscitate further reading and research on the three leading ideas elaborated in it. The first concerns the hypothesis that contemporary Virtual Art can be considered as a new and refined version of Technological Art with its emphasis on interactivity, its humanization of technology and its multisensorial outlook. The second tries to emphasize the wide range and diversity of the works and itineraries of artists practising virtuality, while the third alludes to the fact that these artists apart from, or rather linked with aesthetic finalities pursue also goals which at first sight appear as being of a scientific or social order, but are in fact also concerned with basic human needs and drives.

In trying to limit this vast field I have selected for my bibliography mainly items that are concerned with aesthetic issues topical since the early 1990s. On the other hand, although the majority of the texts mentioned are in English, I have tried to include a few entries in other languages.
-- Frank Popper


Armitage, John (ed.), Virilio Live. Selected Interviews, London: Sage Publications, 2001

Ars Electronica Proceedings: Cyberarts. Catalogues of Symposion and Prize Awards, 1990-1999

Artbyte Magazine

Arte en la era electrónica. Perspectiva de una nueva estética, Barcelona: Claudia Giannetti, ed., 1997

Ascott, Roy, Consciousness reframed: art and consciousness in the post-biological era, Newport: University of Wales, Newport, 1997

Ascott, Roy, Reframing Consciousness: Art, Mind and Technology, Exeter: Intellect Books, 1999

Ascott, Roy, Consciousness, Mind@ large, Bristol, Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 2000

Atkins, Robert, ArtSpeak: A Guide to Contempoarary Ideas, Movements and Buzzwords, 1945 to the Present, New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1997

Balpe, Jean-Pierre, Contextes de l’art numérique, Paris: Hermès, 2000

Bateson, Gregory, Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity, Toronto; New York: Bantam Books, 1980

Baudrillard, Jean, Simulations, New York: Semiotext(e), 1983

Baumgärtl, Tilman, Net. art 2.0: Neue Materialien zur Netzkunst = New Materials towards Net Art, Nürnberg: Verlag für moderne Kunst, 2001

Bellour, Raymond, L’entre images, Photo, Cinéma, Vidéo, Paris: La Différence, 1990

Bellour, Raymond, L’entre images II, Paris, POL, 1999

Benedikt, Michael, Cyberspace. First Steps, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991

Boissier, Jean-Louis, La Revue Virtuelle, Notebooks Nos. 1-17, Paris: Centre Pompidou, 1992-1996

Bourriaud, Nicolas, Esthétique relationnelle, Dijon: Presses du réel, 1998

Buci-Glücksmann, Christine, "L’art à l’époque virtuel", in Frontières esthétiques de l’art, Arts 8, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999, p.193-203

Buci-Glücksmann, Christine, Esthétique du temps au Japon: du zen au rituel, Paris: Gallimard, 2001

Bureaud, Annick, "Pour une typologie de la création sur Internet"

Bureaud, Annick, "Le cyberespace: entre topos et nomos", Art Press, no. 259, July-August 2000, p. 89

Bureaud, Annick & Nathalie Magnan (ed.), Connexions: Art, réseaux, media, Paris: Ecole nationale supérieure des Beaux-arts, 2002

Burnham, Jack, Beyond Modern Sculpture, New York: Braziller, 1968

Cauquelin, Anne (ed.), "Autres sites, nouveaux paysages", Revue d’Esthétique, no. 39, 2001

Clémént, Jean et Laufer, Roger (eds.), "Littérature et informatique", Littérature, no. 96, Larousse, 1994

Costa, Mario, L’estetica della communicazione, Salerno: Palladio Ed., 1987

Couchot, Edmond, De l’optique au numérique. Paris: Hermès, 1988

Couchot, Edmond, La technologie dans l’art. De la photographie à la réalité virtuelle, Nîmes: Editions Jacqueline Chambon, 1998

Couchot, Edmond and Hillaire, Norbert, L’art numérique. Comment la technologie vient au monde de l’art, Paris: Flammarion, 2003

Coyne, Richard, Technoromanticism: Digital Narrative, Holism and the Romance of the Real, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2001

Coyne, Richard, Designing Information Technology in the Postmodern Age: From Method to Metaphor, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996

Crary, Jonathan, Techniques of the Observer. On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990

Crary, Jonathan, Suspension of Perception. Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001

Cubitt, Sean, Digital Aesthetics, Sage Publications, 1998

Cubitt, Sean, Video Media as Art and Culture, St. Martin’s Press, 1993

Davis, Douglas, Art of the Future: A History/Prophecy of the Collaboration between Science, Technology and Art, New York: Praeger, 1973

Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene (1976), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989

Debord, Guy, The Society of the Spectacle, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995

Debray, Régis, Manifestes médiologiques, Paris: Gallimard, 1994, Media Manifestos: On the technological transmission of cultural forms, London; New York: Verso, 1996

De Kerckhove, Derrick, Connected Intelligence: The Arrival of the Web Society, Somerville House, USA, 1997

Delany, Paul and Landow, George P. (eds.), Hypermedia and Literary Studies, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994

Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari, Félix, l’Anti-Oedipe, Gallimard, 1974

Deleuze, Gilles and Guattari, Félix, Mille Plateaux, Gallimard. 1980

Dinkla, Söke, Interaktive computergestützte Installationen um 1990, unpublished thesis, University of Hamburg, 1991

Dinkla, Söke, "Vom Zuschauer zum Spieler: Utopie, Skepsis, Kritik und eine neue Poetik in der Interaktiven Kunst", in Interact: Schlüsselwerke interaktiver Kunst, Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg; Ostfildern: Cantz, 1997

Dinkla, Söke, Pioniere interaktiver Kunst von 1970 bis heute: Myron Krueger, Jeffrey Shaw, David Rokeby, Lynn Hershman, Graham Weinbren, Ken Feingold, ZKM Karlsruhe, Ostfildern: Cantz, 1997

Domingues, Diana, A Arte no Século XXI. A humanização das tecnologias, Editora Unesp, São Paulo, 1997

Druckrey, Timothy (ed.), Iterations, The New Image, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994

Druckrey, Timothy (ed.), Electronic Culture; Technology; Technology and Visual Representation, New York: Aperture, 1997

Druckrey, Timothy (ed.), Ars Electronica Facing the Future, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999 Series: Electronic Culture: History, Theory and Practice.

Duguet, Anne-Marie, Vidéo, la mémoire au poing, Paris: Hachette, 1981

Duguet, Anne-Marie, Déjouer l’image: Créations électroniques et numériques, Nïmes: Editions Jacqueline Chambon, 2002

Eisenbeis, Manfred et Hagebölling, H. (eds.), Synthesis-Visual Arts in the Electronic Culture, Offenbach am Main: Hochschule für Gestaltung, 1989

Electronically yours, Exhibition Catalogue London: The National Portrait Gallery, Tokyo: Metropolitan Museum of Photography, 1998

Fassler, Manfred, Cyber-Moderne: Medienrevolution, globale Netzwerke und die Künste der Kommunikation, Wien, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999

Forest, Fred, Pour un art actuel, L’art à l’heure de l’Internet, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998

Forest, Fred, Fonctionnement et dysfonctionnements de l’art contemporain, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000

Foster, Hal, The Return of the Real: The Avant-Garde at the End of the Century, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996

Francastel, Pierre, Art and Technology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Fuller, R. Buckminster, Synergetics, New York, Macmillan, 1975, and Synergetics 2, New York, Macmillan, 1979

Gibson, William, Neuromancer, Ace Books, 1984

Gibson, William, Virtual Light, Banham, Doubleday, Dell, 1994

Gibson, William, All Tomorrow’s Parties, Ace Books, 2000

Goldberg, Ken, "Virtual Reality in the Age of Telepresence", Convergence, 4, no. 1 (March 1998), p. 33-37

Goldberg, Ken, The Robot in the Garden. Telerobotics and Telepistemology in the Age of the Internet, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Goodman, Cynthia, Digital Visions, New York: Abrams, 1987

Goodman, Nelson, Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968

Grau, Oliver, "In das lebendige Bild: Die virtuelle Realität setzt der Kunst neue Spielregel", in neue bildende kunst, no. 6, 1997, page 28-35

Grau, Oliver, Virtuelle Kunst in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Visuelle Strategien, Berlin: Reimer, 2001

Grau, Oliver, Virtual Art. From Illusion to Immersion, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003

Harris, Craig (ed.), Art and Innovation. The Xerox Parc Artist-in-Residence Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999

Haraway, Donna J., "A Manifesto for Cyborgs", Socialist Revue, 80 (1995)

Haraway Donna J., Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium_FemaleMan_Meets OncoMouse. Feminism and Technoscience, London: Routledge, 1997

Haraway, Donna J., Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, London: Routledge, 1991

Harcourt, Wendy, Women@Internet: Creating New Cultures in Cyberspace, Zed Books Ltd., 1999

Haywald, P. (ed.), Culture, Technology and Creativity in the Late Twentieth Century, London, 1993

Hershman-Leeson, Lynn (ed.), Clocking-in: Hot Links to Digital Culture, Seattle: Bay Press, 1996

Heyrman, Hugo, Synaesthesia <http: //www. doctorhugo. org>

Holtzman, Steven R, Digital Mosaics. The Aesthetics of Cyberspace, July 1997, Paperback July 1998

Holtzman, Steven R., Digital Mantras: The Language of Abstract and Virtual Worlds, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994, Paperback September 1995

Hünnekens, Annette, Der bewegte Betrachter. Theorien der interaktiven Medienkunst,, Cologne: Wienand Verlag, 1997

Ippolito, Jon, The Edge of Art, London: Thames & Hudson, (forthcoming)

ISEA proceedings

Kahn, Douglas and Whitehead, Gregory (eds.), Wireless Imagination, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992

Kidder, Rushworth M., Reinventing the Future: Global Goals for the 21st Century, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989

Kisseleva, Olga, Cyberart, un essai sur l’art du dialogue, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998

Klonaris. Maria and Thomadaki, Katerina (eds.), Pour une écologie des médias, Paris: Astarti, 1998

Klonaris, Maria and Thomadaki, Katerina (eds.), Technologies et imaginaire. Art cinéma-Art vidéo-Art ordinateur, Paris: Editions Dis Voir, 1990

Klonaris, Maria and Thomadaki, Katerina (eds.), Mutations de l’image: art cinéma/vidéo/ordinateur, Paris: Astarti, 2000

Krueger, Myron, Artificial Reality II, Reading, Mass;: Addison-Wesley, 1991

Krauss, Rosalind, October: The Second Decade, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997

Krauss, Rosalind, The Originality of the Avant-Garde and the other modernist myths, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989

Krauss, Rosalind, The Optical Unconscious, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993

Krauss, Rosalind, Bachelors, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Kunstforum International, Band 148, December 1999-January 2000: Ressource Aufmerksamkeit: Aesthetik in der Informationsgesellschaft

Lafon, Jacques, Esthétique de l’image de synthèse. La trace de l’ange, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999.

Laufer, Roger, Texte, hypertexte, hypermédia, Paris: P. U. F. (coll. Que-sais-je), 1992

Lenoble, Michel and Vuillemin, Alain, Littérature et informatique: La littérature générée par ordinateur, Arras: Artois presses université, 1995

Leonardo Journal 1968-2003

Lévy, Pierre, Les technologies de l’intelligence: l’avenir de la pensée à l’ère de l’informatique, Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1990

Lévy, Pierre, De la programmation considérée comme un des beaux arts, Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1992

Lévy, Pierre, L’intelligence collective: Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace, Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1994, / Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace, New York, Plenum Trade, 1997

Lévy, Pierre, Qu’est-ce que le virtuel?, Paris: Editions de la Découverte, 1995, Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age, New York, Plenum Trade, 1998

Lévy, Pierre, Les chemins du virtuel. Essai sur la cyberculture / Cyberculture, Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2001

Levy, Steven, Hackers. Heroes of the Computer Revolution, New York: Dell, 1984

Lovejoy, Margot, Postmodern Currents. Art and Artists in the Age of Electronic Media, Second edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997, Third edition (forthcoming)

Lovejoy, Margot, Christiane Paul, Victoria Vesna (edits.), Context and Meaning in Digital Art, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press (forthcoming)

Lyotard, Jean-François, L’inhumain: Causeries sur le temps, Paris: Galilée, 1988

Lunenfeld, Peter (ed.), The Digital Dialectic, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999

Lunenfeld, Peter, Snap to Grid: A User’s Guide to Digital Arts, Media, and Cultures, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Machado, Arlindo, Máquina e Imaginário, Editora da Universade de São Paulo, 1993.

Maeda, John, Maeda@Media, New York: Rizzoli, 2000 / Maeda & Media: Journal d’un explorateur du numérique, Paris: Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Maeda, John, Design by Numbers, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999

Magazine littéraire, novembre 2000

Manovich, Lev, The Language of New Media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001

Marvin, Carolyn, When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990

McLuhan, Herbert Marshall, La Galaxie Gutenberg: Face à l’ère électronique, Montreal: HMH Ltée, 1967/ Gutenberg Galaxy: The making of typographic man, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962

McLuhan, Herbert Marshall, Understanding Media, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964

Menzel, Peter and d’Allisio, Faith, Robo sapiens: Evolution of a New Species, Cambridge, Mass;: MIT Press, 2000

Mèredieu, Florence de, Histoire materielle et immaterielle de l’art moderne, Paris: Bordas, 1994

Méredieu, Florence de, Arts et nouvelles technologies, art vidéo, art numérique, Paris: Larousse, 2003

Michaud, Yves, La crise de l’art contemporain; utopie, démocratie et comédie, 4e éd. corrigée, Paris: P. U. F., 1998

Morse, Margaret, Virtualities: Television, Media Art, and Cyberculture, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998

Moser, Mary Anne & Macleod, Douglas (eds.), Immersed in Technology; Art and Virtual Environments, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996

Murray, Janet Horowitz., Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace, Free Press 1997, MIT Press 1998

Mute Magazine (London)

Negroponte, Nicholas, Being digital, London, Hodder & Stoughton:, 1995

Packer, R. and K. Jourdan (eds.), Multimedia: from Wagner to Virtual Reality, New York: Norton, 2001

Pelé, Gérard, Art, informatique et mimétisme, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2002

Pendergast, Sara and Tom (eds.), Contemporary Artists, 5th edition, Detroit: St. James Press, 2002

Penny, Simon, Critical Issues in Electronic Media. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995

Pepperell, Robert, The Post-Human Condition, 2nd edition, Bristol, Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 1997

Pickover, Clifford, Computers and the Imagination: Visual Adventures beyond the Edge, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991

Pickover, Clifford, Visions of the Future: Art, Technology and Computing in the Twenty-First Century, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1992

Poissant, Louise (ed.), Esthétiques des arts médiatiques, 2 vols;, Montreal: Presses de l’université du Québec, 1995

Popper, Frank, Art, Action and Participation, New York: New York University Press, 1975

Popper, Frank, Electra. Electricty and Electronics in the Art of the XXth Century, Paris: Musée d’Art moderne de la ville de Paris, 1983

Popper, Frank, Art of the Electronic Age, London: Thames & Hudson, New York: Abrams, 1993 (Paperback Edition, London & New York: Thames & Hudson, 1997)

Punt, Michael and Pepperell, Robert, The Post-Digital Membrane: imagination, technology and desire, Bristol, Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 2000

Ramonet, Ignacio, La tyrannie de la communication, Paris: Galilée, 1999

Ramonet, Ignacio, Géopolitique du chaos, 1997, Pocket edition, Paris: Gallimard, 1999/ Geopolitics of Chaos, New York: Algora Publ., 1998

Rheingold, Howard, Virtual Reality, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991

Rheingold, Howard, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (1993), Revised Edition, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Rogala, Miroslav, Divided We Speak, Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1967

Rötzer, Florian (ed.), Digitaler Schein: Ästhetik der elektronischen Medien, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1991.

Rush, Michael, New Media in Late Twentieth Century Art, London: Thames & Hudson, 1999

Quéau, Philippe, Le virtuel. Vertus et vertiges, Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 1993

Sakane, Itsuo, "Introduction to Interactive Art", in Wonderland of Science and Art - Invitation to Science Art, Committee for Kawagushi International Art Science Exhibitions, Sakado, 1989

Schwartz, Lillian, The Computer Artist’s Handbook: Concepts, Techniques and Applications, New York: Norton, 1992

Schwarz, Hans-Peter, Media-Art-History, Karlsruhe: ZKM/Center for Art and Media, Munich & New York: Prestel, 1997

Schwarz, Hans-Peter (ed.), Perspektiven der Medienkunst / Media Art Perspectives, Karlsruhe: Crantz Verlag, 1996

Shanken, Edward A., "Tele-Agency: Telematics, Telerobotics, and the Art of Meaning", Art Journal, summer 2000, p. 64-77

Shanken, Edward A. (ed.), Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology and Consciousness by Roy Ascott, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003

Shanken, Edward A. (ed.), Art and Electronic Media, London: Phaidon, ( forthcoming)

Shaw, Jeffrey, A User’s Manual, Karlsruhe & Ostfildern: ZKM/Crantz, 1996

SIGGRAPH proceedings

Slouka, Mark, The War of the Worlds: Cyberspace and the High-tech assault on Reality, New York: Basic Books, 1995

Smiers, Joost, Etat des lieux de la création en Europe: le tissu culturel déchiré, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1998

Sommerer, Christa & Mignonneau, Laurent. (eds.), Art @Science, Vienna and New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998

Spielmann, Yvonne & Winter Gundolf, Bild-Medium-Kunst, Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1999.

Stiles, Kristina & Selz, Peter (eds), Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996

Strosberg, Eliane, Art & Science, Paris: Ed. UNESCO, 1999

Thalmann-Magnenat, Nadia & Thalmann, Daniel, Virtual Worlds and Multimedia, New York: John W. Ley, 1993

Todd, Stephen & William Latham, Evolutionary Art and Computers, London: Academic Press, 1992

Toy, M. (ed.), Architects in Cyberspace, London: Academy Editions, 1995

Turkle, Sherry, Life on the Screen. Identity in the Age of the Internet, Simon&Schuster, 1995

Tye, Michael, Ten Problems of Consciousness: a Representational Theory of the Phenomenal Mind, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995

Virilio, Paul, The Art of the Motor, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1995 / L’art du moteur, Paris: Galilée, 1993

Virilio, Paul, The Aesthetics of Disappearance, New York: semiotext(e), 1991 / L’esthétique de la disparition, Paris: Balilée, 1989

Virilio, Paul, The Vision Machine, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994/ La machine de vision, Paris: Galilée, 1992

Vogelsang, Ingo & Compaine, Benjamin M., The Internet Upheaval, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000

Weibel, Peter and Druckrey, Timothy (eds.), net condition: art and global media, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001

Weissberg, Jean-Louis and Martine Moinot, Les chemins du virtuel: Simulation informatique et création industrielle, Paris: Cahiers du CCI, Centre Georges Pompidou, 1989

Weissberg, Jean-Louis, Présences à distance. Déplacement virtuel et réseaux numériques. Pourquoi nous ne croyons plus à la télévision, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999

Wertheim, Margaret. The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet., New York: Norton, 1999

Whitney, John, Digital Harmony. On the Complementary of Music and Visual Art, Byte Books/A McGraw-Hill Publication/Peterborough New Hampshire, 1980.

Wilson, Stephen, Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science and Technology, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002

Wired Magazine <http: //www. . wired. com>

Wolton, Dominique, Internet et après ?: une théorie critique des nouveaux médias, Paris: Flammarion, 1999

Wolton, Dominique, Penser la communnication, Paris: Flammarion, 1998

Wooley, Benjamin, Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality, Oxford: Blackwell, 1992


ACEVEDO Victor (III-1) <acevedo4@earthlink.net>

AGAM Yaacov (I-24) <agam@agamart.wanadoo.fr> <agam@agamart.noos.fr>

AGOSTINO Peter d' (IV-39) <pda@temple.edu>

ALLEN Rebecca (V-17) <rallen@arts.ucla.edu>

AMERIKA Mark (VI-33)) <Mark.Amerika@Colorado.EDU>

ANKER Suzanne (III-42) <anker@geneculture.org>

ASCOTT Roy (II-39) <roy.ascott@btinternet.com> <www.caiia-star.net>

BALPE Jean-Pierre (IV-1) <balpe@labart.univ-paris8.fr>

BARRON Stéphan (VI-57)


BAYRLE Thomas (III-17)


BENAYOUN Maurice (V-23) <maurice@benayoun.com> <http://www.benayoun.com>


BENYON Margaret (II-4) <benyon@holography.demon.co.uk>

BERGER Erich (V-83) <erich@fl.aec.at> <http://cyborg.aec.at>

BEUYS Joseph (I)

BIGGS Simon (V-28) <simon@babar.demon.co.uk>


BOISSIER Jean-Louis (IV-44) <boissier@noos.fr>




BRET Michel(V-6) <Michel.Bret@univ-paris8.fr>

BRIAND Mathieu (III-30) < mathieu.briand@wanadoo.fr>


BRIXEY Shawn (V-155) <shawnx@washington.edu>


BROWN Richard (V-141) <rdbrown_uk@yahoo.com> <http://www.-crd.rca.ac.uk>

BURY Pol (I)

CAGE John (I)


CHATONSKY Grégory (VI-46) <cgregory@incident.net>

<incident@incident.net> <http://incident.net>


CHEVALIER Miguel (V-151) <miguel@club-internet.fr>



CLAUS Jürgen (II-11) <jurclaus@euregio.net> <http://khm.de>

CLOSKY Claude (II-24) <closky@club-internet.fr>

<www.fraclr.org/closky/closky/index.htm> <http://www.poplist.fr>


COHEN Harold (IV-19) <sdcarla.ucsd.edu> <http://crca.ucsd.edu/- hcohen>

COLLINS Susan (V-120) <susan.collins@ucl.ac.uk> <susan@inhabited.net>

<http://www.ucl.ac.uk/slade/sac/> <http://www.inconversation.com>

COUCHOT Edmond (V-3) <couchot@club-internet.fr>




COURCHESNE Luc (V-123) <luc.courchesne@umontreal.ca>


CRANDALL Jordan (VI-39) <xaf@interport.net> <crandall@blast.org>

<ordan@pipeline.com> <http://www.blast.org>

CZEGLEDY Nina (IV-33) <czegledy@interlog.com> <www.interaccess.org>

DAVIES Char (V-12) <char@immersence.com>


DAVIS Douglas (VI) <dmdavis@aol.com>

DECK Andy (VI-1) <deck@artcontext.com> <http://artcontext.org>

<http://rhizome.org/<a%20href="> <http://www.andyland.net/progload/>

DILLER Elizabeth (V-115)


DOMBIS Pascal (III-7) <pdombis@club-internet.fr> <www.dombis.com>


DOMINGUES Diana (IV-31) <diana@visao.com.br


DOVE Tony (V-63) <tdove@aol.com> <http://www.funnygarbage.com/dove>



DUCHAMP Marcel (I)

DYENS Georges (I-18) <r30650@uqam.ca>


EARLS Paul (I-15)


FEINGOLD Ken (IV-11) <info@kenfeingold.com>



FISHER Ebon (III-34) <alula@rcn.net> <ebon@olulo.net>



FISHER Scott (V-3) <sfischer@telepresence.com>



FLAVIN Dan (I-11)

FLEISCHMANN Monika (III-26) <fleischmann@gmd.de



FONTANA Lucio (I-11)

FOREST Fred (II-42) <forest@imaginet.fe> <http://www.fredforest.org>



<http://www.imaginet.fr/forest> <http://www.webnetmuseum.org>

FUJIHATA Masaki (V) <masaki@sfc.keio.ac.jp>


GABO Nahum (I)

GALLOWAY Alex (VI-5) <ecafe@earthlink.net> <alex@rhizome.org>


GHERBI Nikolas (VI-60) <nikolagerbhi@noos.fr>

GILARDI Piero (II-14)

GILLETTE Frank (IV-20) <gillette@limulus.org>

GIOVANELLI Jean-Pierre (IV-28) <archimediart@ifrance.com>

GIRARD Michael + AMKRAUT Susan (V-34)


GOLDBERG Ken (VI-64) <goldberg@tinguely.ieor.berkeley.edu>


GRANCHER Valéry 3 (VI-49) <vgrancher@nomemory.org>



GROEBEL Matthias (III-11) <groebel@dom.de> <groebel@eyewithwings.net>



GUENTHER Ingo (VI) <I-GUN@refugee.net> <ig@republik.com>

<rrcorp@yahoo.com> <http://www.republik.com> <http://exosphere.org>

<http://refugee.net> <http://worldprocessor.com>


HEGEDÜS Agnes (V-34)


HERSHMAN-LEESON Lynn (V-113) <lynn2@mail.well.com>


HEYRMAN Dr Hugo (IV-24)) <drhugo@pandora.be> <http://www.doctorhugo.org>

HILL Gary (II-18) <dreamspace@aol.com

HOBERMAN Perry (V-70) <perry@hoberman.com>



HOLZER Jenny (IV-17) <thhllfrm@aol.com> <http://adaweb.walkerart.org/>

HOVAGIMYAN G.H. (VI-28) <ghh@thing.net> <gh@popstar.com>

<ghovagimyan@hotmail.com> <http://www.artnetweb.com/gh>



IIMURA Takahiko (IV-41) <iimura@gol.com>


IKAM Catherine-FLERI Louis(V-81) <ikam@mail.club-internet.fr>

<http://www.ubikam.com/> <http://www.ubikam.com/home.htm>

JENNINGS Pamela (VI-51) <mindfield@earthlink.net>


JODI (JOan Hemskeerk & DIrk Paesman) (VI-75) <404@jodi.org>

<jodi@jodi.org> <http://www.jodi.org> <http://oss.jodi.org>

<http://sod.jodi.org> <http://www.rhizome.org>

JUNG Dieter (I-17) <jung@khm.de>

KAC Eduardo (VI-71) <ekac@artic.edu> <http://www.ekac.org>

KAPROW Allen (I)


KAWAGUCHI Yoichiro (II-34)

KELOMEES Raivo (IV-43) <offline@online.ee>


KEPES Georgy (I)

KLEIN Yves (I)

KLIMA John (V-90) <klima@ECHONYK.com>

KNOWBOTIC Research (VI-42) <krcf@khm.de> <http://io.khm.de/>


KOGLER Peter (III) <p.kogler@akbild.ac.at>


KOWALSKI Piotr (I-11)

KRUEGER Myron (V-1) <myronkru@aol.com>


LA PORTA Tina (VI-24) <laporta@interport.net>

<laporta.interport@rcn.com> <http://residence.aec.at/traces/>




LATHAM William 1 (III)

LAUREL Brenda (IV-57) <laurel@interval.com> <blaurel@tauzero.com>


LAURETTE Matthieu (VI-) <matthieu@laurette.net>

<http://www.laurette.net/> <http://www.laurette.net/bio/index.htm>

LAUSTEN Thorbjorn (I-11)

LAVAUD Sophie 4 (V-53) <sophie.lavaud@worldnet.fr>




LEGRADY Georges (IV-47) <legrady@humanitas.ucsb.edu>


LICHTY Patrick (IV-6) <voyd@voyd.com>


LONGAVESNE Jean-Pierre(V-49) <grip@cnam.fr >



LOVEJOY Margot (VI-15) <mardek@inch.com> <margotlovejoy.com>

>parthenia.com> <www.myturningpoint.com>

LOZANO-HEMMER Raphael (V-32) <rafael@lozano-hemmer.com>


LYE Len (I)

MAEDA John (III-19) <http://www.maedastudio.com>

<http://acg.media.mit.edu> <http://www.imrf.or.jp>

<http://www.sawayamoroni.com> <http://www.seibu.co.jp>

<http://www.shiseido.co.jp> <http://www.sony.co.jp>

MALINA Frank (I-39) <http://olats.org/pionniers/malina/malina.shtml>

McLAREN Norman (I)

METZGER Gustav (I-35)

MIGNONNEAU Laurent (V-145) <laurent@mic.atr.co.jp>

MILLER Steve (III-16) <steve@stevemiller.com>

<http://www.stevemiller.com> <http://www.dreamingbrain.com>

MOHOLY-NAGY Laszlo (I-7)

MOHR Manfred (III-4) <mafred@eMohr.com> <http://www.emohr.com/>

MOLNAR Vera (II-29)

MORELLET François (I-11)

MUNTADAS Antonio (VI) <muntadas@earthlink.net>




MURPHY Robbin (VI) <robbin@thing.net> <robbin.murphy@nyu.edu>


NAIMARK Michael (V-112) <naimark@interval.com >


NAPIER Mark (VI-79) <napier@interport.net>


NAUMAN Bruce (I-11)

NECHVATAL Joseph (III-37) <joseph_nechvatal@hotmail.com>


NIDEFFER Robert (IV-12) <nideffer@uci.edu> <nideffer@proxy.arts.uci.edu>


NOEMI (V-74)<me@n-o-e-m-i.com> <stephane.maguet@music2eye.com>


NOVAK Marcos (VI-90) <marcos@centrifuge.org>



ORLAN (V-86) <orlan@club-internet.fr> <http://www.orlan.net>

OURSLER Tony (II-22)

PAIK Nam June (II)

PALMER Mark (V-36) <M.W.Palmer@staffs.ac.uk>

PAULINE Mark (IV-59)<http://www.srl.org>

PENNY Simon (V-83) <penny@cmu.edu>


PEPPER Andrew (I-18)

PEZOLD Friederike (II)

PHILIPPE Jean-Marc (I-21)

PIENE Otto (II-11,22)

POLIERI,Jacques (I-20)

RAPOPORT Sonya, (V-132) <sonyarap@lmi.net> <rapop@socrates.berkeley.edu>




REES Michael (III-22) <sculpture@michaelrees.com> <x@michaelrees.com>



RINALDO Kenneth (V-59) <rinaldo@cgeg.ohio-state.edu> <http://art and

tech.osu.edu> <http://www.cgrg.ohio-state.edu-rinaldo>

ROBBINS Christiane (V-68) <robbins@usc.edu>

ROGALA Miroslaw (IV-53) <rogala@mcs.net> <rogala@rogala.org>


ROKEBY David (V-97) <drokeby@interlog.com>


RTMARK Group(IV-60) <ann62@rtmark.com> <http://rtmark.com/new.html>


SAUTER Joachim (III-30) <js@artcom.de> <http://www.artcom.de/~js>

SCHEER Joseph (III-21)



SCHER Julia (IV-60) <jscher@mit.edu> <juliascher@hotmail.com>

<scherware.com> <insecuritybyjulia.com> <http://www.sfmoma.org>


SCHOEFFER Nicholas (I-10) http://www.olats.org/setF4.html>

SCOFIDIO Ricardo (V-115)


SCOTT Jill (V-102) <jscott@access.ch> <http://digitalbody.zkm.de>


SEAMAN Bill (V-74) <seaman@ucla.edu>

<http://www.cda.ucla.edu/faculty/seaman> <http://www.design.ucla.edu/>

SERMON Paul (VI-53) <sermon@rz.uni-leipzig.de> <p.sermon@salford.ac.uk>


SHAW Jeffrey(II-37) <js@zkm.de> http://escape.lancs.ac.uk>


SIMON John F. (III-14) <jfsjr@numeral.com> <jfsjr@pop.interport.net>


SIMS Karl (III-40) <karl@genarts.com> <http://www.bioto.org/ksims>

SLAYTON Joel (V-137) <joel@well.com> <http://surveil.sjsu.edu/>

<http://cadre.sjsu.edu> <http://www.C5corp.com>

SNOW Michael (II)

SOMMERER Christa (V-145) <christa@mic.atr.co.jp>


SOTO Jesus-Raphael (I)

STAEHLE Wolfgang (VI-20)

STAHL Stenslie (IV-18) <stahl@khm.de> <stahl@sirene.nta.no>


STANZA (VI-87) <stanza@sublime.net> <http://www.amorphoscapes.com>


STELARC (VI-62) <stelarc@peg.apc.org>, <stelarc@va.com.au>

<http://www.merlin.com.au> <http://www.stelarc.va.com.au>

STENGER Nicole (VI-82) <lasiemaime@yahoo.com> <lasiemaime@netzero.net>


STROMAJER Igor (VI-43) <atom@intima.org> <igor.stromajer@guest.arnes.si>


SURVIVAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES (IV-59)) <http://www.srl.org>

SYNESTHESIE Revue (IV-27) <sybsthe@wrldnet.fr>


TATLIN Vladimir (I)

THOREL Paul (III) <paulthorel@paulthorel.com>


TINGUELY Jean (I-38)

TRAMUS Marie-Hélène(V-6) <Mh.Tramus@univ-paris8.fr>

TRIBE Mark (VI-8) <mark@rhizome.org> <http://jupiter.ucsd.edu>


TRUTWIN Tobias (III-17) <100435.3512@compuserve.com>


TURRELL James (II-11)


VASULKA Woody and Steina (II-17) <http://www.fondation


VEROSTKO Roman (IV-19) <roman@mcad.edu> <http://www.verostko.com/>

VESNA Victoria (VI-12) <vv@ucla.edu> <http://vv.arts.ucla.edu>

VIOLA Bill (II-18) <bvoffice@aol.com>

WALICZKY Tamas (III-32) <tWaliczky@comuserve.com>



WILFRED Thomas (I-7)

WILSON Stephen (V) <swilson@sfsu.edu> <http://userwww.sfsu.edu/-swilson>

WORTZEL Adrianne(VI-65) <AWortzel@nyctc.cuny.edu> <sphinx@panix.com>


YALTER Nil (II-28) <Nilyalter@aol.com>

YAMAGUSHI Katsuhiro (II-19)

YVARAL Jean-Pierre (I-32)

Received 7 January 2003

Updated 2 November 2005

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