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Pierre Schaeffer Bibliography
compiled by Carlos Palombini
(Title 9 of 10)

IX. 1999. Jean-François Augoyard, François Bayle, Lelio Camilleri, Sylvie Dallet, Francis Dhomont, Hugues Dufourt, Marcel Frémiot, Régis Renouard Larivière, Jean Molino, Jean-Claude Risset, Pierre Schaeffer, Denis Smalley, Makis Solomos and Jean-Christophe Thomas. Ouïr, entendre, écouter, comprendre après Schaeffer. [To Hear, to Understand, to Listen and to Comprehend After Schaeffer] [1]. Paris: INA-GRM/Buchet-Chastel [GRM: Maison de Radio France, pièce 3521, 116 avenue du Président Kennedy, 75220 Paris, Cedex 16, tel. +33 1, fax +33 1, e-mail: grm@ina.fr Websites:http://www.ina.fr/GRM/ and http://www.ina.fr/GRM/PUBLICATIONS/EDITION/publications.fr.html; Buchet/Chastel: 18 rue de Condé, 75006 Paris, tel. +33 1, fax +33 1 ]. Collection "Recherches Musicales".  280 pp. ISBN 2283017890.

Given the contradictions of Schaeffer's text and the absence of any true explication [2] of it, one could ask to what extent an "after Schaeffer" (après Schaeffer) might be anything other than an "according to Schaeffer" (d'après Schaeffer) in disguise. Yet, Ouïr, entendre, écouter, comprendre après Schaeffer holds surprises: with welcome sobriety, the Xenakis expert Makis Solomos places Schaeffer's phenomenology under the aegis of Merleau-Ponty rather than Husserl in its existential bent; the composer Régis Renouard Larivière brings to a close his inquiry into Schaeffer's conception of musicalness [3] with an outstanding exegesis; Marcel Frémiot illustrates the relevance of Schaeffer's research to semiotic analysis; and the semiologist Jean Molino reduces the Sound Object to the far-famed poietic/esthesic/neutral tripartition only to find fault with Schaeffer for not fitting into this all-purpose scheme.

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION, by Jean-Christophe Thomas
Phenomenologist Schaeffer, by Makis Solomos
Pierre Schaeffer: Sound as a Phenomenon of Civilization, by Hugues Dufourt
The Sound Object or the Environment Held in Abeyance, by Jean-François Augoyard
Object, Song, by Régis Renouard Larivière
Music and the Object, by Jean Molino
Phonogène Schaeffer, by François Bayle
Pierre Schaeffer: Music and Radio Research and Creation, by Jean-Claude Risset
Dynamics of the Freezing of the Image, by Francis Dhomont
Establishing Relational Frameworks for the Analysis of Post-Schaefferian Music, by Denis Smalley
Organized Noise, by Lelio Camilleri
From Sound Object to Temporal Semiotic Units, by Marcel Frémiot
Hybrids, by Pierre Schaeffer
The Travels of Orpheus, by Sylvie Dallet

[1] "To understand" is admittedly an inadequate rendering of Schaeffer's entendre. In the French language, "hearing", "listening", "understanding" and "comprehending" all are lexicalized acceptations of entendre, by semantic derivation from the etymological sense, "to tend to", and hence, "to turn one's attention towards". This allows Schaeffer to construe entendre as "to hear", "to listen", "to understand" and "to comprehend" in mindfulness of one's intention. To approximate Schaeffer's entendre, the reader is requested to construe "to understand" as "to stand under the influence of (a particular intention [of listening])". "To listen for" and "to listen out for" might as well have been used.

[2] On "explication", see Barbara Stanosz  in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Encyclopedic Dictionary of Semiotics v. 1, pp. 246 (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1986).

Giving an explication for (or explicating) an unclear concept (one that is vague, ambiguous or simply lacking in definition) consists in replacing it by a new, exact, and well defined concept that is close enough to the former one to take over its role in scientific (philosophical etc.) discourse. The earlier concept is called the explicandum, the new one an explicatum of the former. The condition of adequacy of an explication (that makes clear the sense of the expression "to be close enough" as used above) goes as follows: the concept C' is an adequate explicatum of the concept C if and only if no important proposition containing C changes its supposed truth-value (the property of being true or false) when C is replaced in it by C'. Thus, the adequacy of an explication depends upon the set of contexts of the explicandum that are taken to be important.
[3] See the article "Osez dire ce que vous appelez pomme" ("Dare to Say What You Call Apple", Ars Sonora 3, March 1996, http://julienas.ipt.univ-paris8.fr/~arsonora/revue/rev-indx.htm), which Chion so dismissed (see "Une réaction de Michel Chion", Ars Sonora 5, April 1997, ibidem).

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Posted 13 September 2001.
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