Between Form and Force - Mario Ramiro
References and Notes
The beginning of the Brazilian graffiti movement, around the mid- to late
1970s, was characterized by creative use of synthetic language, an urban poetry
for the masses resembling the "wall writings"---political messages written with
tar on the walls of the city---of the 1940s and 1950s. Later, when artists
started to use graffiti, the movement expanded to incorporate both
monochromatic and multicolor images. See Valdir Arruda, "Um Spray na Mão
e Uma Idéia na Cabeça" ("A Spray in Hand and an Idea in Mind") in
Art em Revista, No. 8 (São Paulo: Centro de Estudos de Arte
Contemporânea, 1984) pp. 59--63.
Editor's note: For more on Brazilian graffiti, see "A poesia
está nos muros," Jornal do Brasil (8 December 1979); Claudio
Miller, Maria Inês de Camargo, "Os poetas do muro," Jornal da
Tarde (27 June 1979) p. 13; "A Cidade pergunta," Jornal da Tarde (13
March 1980); Gustavo Barbosa, Grafitos de Banheiro (São Paulo:
Brasiliense, 1984); Luiz Augusto Borges, "Entre o desejo e a morte" ("Between
Desire and Death") in Art em Revista, No. 8 (São Paulo: Centro de
Estudos de Arte Contemporânea, 1984) pp. 64--68; Sheila Kaplan, "A arte
do grafite ganha espaço nas galerias," O Globo, Segundo Caderno
(Rio de Janeiro, 28 June 1984) p. 13; Jorge A. Barros, "Os muros como suporte
da arte," Jornal do Brasil, Caderno B (Rio de Janeiro, 5 September 1984)
p. 1; Marcus de Lontra Costa, Sandra Mager and Roberto Leal, eds., Como vai
você, geração 89?, exh. cat., special issue of the
magazine Módulo (Rio de Janeiro, July/August 1984).---E. Kac,
2. Flávio de Carvalho realized two major Urban Interventions, which he
referred to as "experiences," that shook public opinion in the city of
São Paulo. The first took place in 1931. In this piece, which he called
"Experience #2," he walked while wearing a hat in the opposite direction of a
procession (a sign of disrespect) during one of the great religious processions
held by the Catholic Church. While doing this he also looked provocatively at
the candle-carrying faithful. He was saved from being beaten by the crowd by
the very police sent to arrest him. The second piece, "Experience #3," was
realized in 1956 and found him parading around downtown São Paulo
dressed in a skirt, designed, according to him, for the hot tropical
Editor's note: For further discussion of Flávio de Carvalho's
work, see J. Toledo, Flávio de Carvalho, O Comedor de
Emoções (São Paulo: Editora Brasiliense, 1994).
Flávio de Carvalho will be discussed in a paper by Rui Moreira Leite as
part of the Radical Intervention special project in a future issue of
Leonardo.---E. Kac, Section Editor.
3. Hélio Oiticica's Parangolés were capes intended to be
worn, often made of cheap materials. See X Documenta in Kassel, exh.
Editor's note: See also Simone Osthoff, "Lygia Clark and
Hélio Oiticica: A Legacy of Interactivity and Participation for a
Telematic Future," Leonardo 30, No. 4, 279--289 (1997).---E.
Kac, Section Editor.
4.About the visual works of Hudinilson Jr., see Alberto Beuttenmüller,
"Arte em Xerox," Módulo, No. 67 (Rio de Janeiro, October 1981)
pp. 40--43; "Uma fria relação," Folha da Tarde,
Artes (Porto Alegre, 1982) p. 57; Hudinilson Jr., Xerox Action,
exh. cat. (Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São
Paulo, August 1983); Hudinilson Jr., "Que imagem é esta? Como se
vê?," in Arte Xerox Brasil, exh. cat. (Pinacoteca do Estado de
São Paulo, May 1984) n.p.; Eduardo Kac, ed., Escracho, artist's
book (Rio de Janeiro: Eduardo Kac, 1983) n.p.; Walter Zanini,
História Geral da Arte no Brasil, Vol. 2 (São Paulo:
Instituto Walter Moreira Sales/Fundação Djalma Guimarães,
1983) pp. 787--789; Mario Ramiro, "Zona de Tensão," Arte em
São Paulo, No. 18 (São Paulo, 1983); Jean-Claude Bernadet,
Palavras para um corpo xerocado (São Paulo: Museum of Contemporary
Art of the Univ. of São Paulo, 1983); Alberto Beuttenmüller,
"Impressões de Narciso," Visão (São Paulo: Artes
Visuais, 1983) p. 70; Décio Presser and Daisy Peccinini, eds., ARTE
Novos Meios/Multimeios--Brasil '70/'80 (São Paulo: Instituto de
Pesquisa, Setor Arte, Faculdade Armando Álvares Penteado, 1985) pp.
245--248; Leonor Amarante, "O Banquete do Eu," O Estado de São
Paulo, Caderno 2 (São Paulo, 1987) p. 1; Tadeu Chiarelli, "The
Contaminated Gaze: Other Photographies," Poliester 2, No. 8,
5. About Rafael França, see Arlindo Machado, "Video Art: The Brazilian
Adventure," Leonardo 29, No. 3, 225--231 (1996); and Helouise
Costa, ed., Sem Medo da Vertigem (São Paulo: Marca d'Água,
Ensacamento, held in April 1979, comprised dozens of public
monuments covered with garbage bags. It was reported in the newspapers Folha
da Tarde (28 April 1979); Última Hora (28 April 1979); and
Diário da Noite (28 April 1979).
X-Galeria was held in July 1979. Various art galleries in the city
of São Paulo had their doors sealed with an "X" in adhesive tape upon
which a small sign warned: "What is inside stays; what is outside expands." It
was reported in the newspapers Folha de São Paulo (7 April
1979) and Jornal da Tarde (7 April 1979).
Triptico, held in August 1979, consisted of three very large screens
set up in front of the São Paulo Municipal Theater, where they remained
for 3 days. The screens were finally removed by the Sanitation
Interdição was made with various colored strips of
cellophane paper that blocked traffic on Paulista Avenue in front of the
São Paulo Museum of Art until motorists decided to drive through them.
It was reported in the newspaper Jornal da Tarde (22 September
ARTE, held in January 1980, resulted in the word "ARTE" written in
blinking lights on the facade of the Instituto de Previdência do Estado
building in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul.
Suprematismo was held in May 1980. A black-and-white triangular form
was installed on a panel on the walls of the old Matarazzo Industries
Intervenção IV, held in July 1980, was the first
large-scale intervention utilizing 100 meters of red polyethylene film
installed on the pedestrian overpass between the Avenues of Paulista,
Rebouças and Dr. Arnaldo in São Paulo. It was reported on
television by the Globo Network (16 July 1980) and in the newspapers Folha
de São Paulo (20 July 1980) and Estado de São
Paulo (15 July 1980).
Conecção, held in April 1981, was made with many
meters of red polyethylene film attached to a subway ventilation grate in a
grassy area at the intersection of Rebouças and Dr. Arnaldo Avenues. It
was reported on television by the Globo Network, and in the newspaper O
Estado de São Paulo (14 May 1981).
Editor's note: The word "conecção," a neologism, was
created by the group as a contraction of "conexão" (connection) and
"ação" (action). It was meant to suggest the action of connecting
the subway ventilation grate to the grassy area.---E. Kac, Section
B'81 was held in October 1981 on the occasion of the inauguration of
the Sixteenth International São Paulo Biennial. It was made with 50
meters of red polyethylene film installed in front of the old entrance to the
Biennial Foundation Building. The film connected the two extremes of the
Armando de Arruda Pereira Square and also covered the bronze bust of the
aforementioned mayor. The project for this work was presented in the
"Núcleo I" of the Sixteenth International São Paulo Biennial (see
exh. cat.). See also M. Ramiro et alli,
"3NÓS3---Intervenção Urbana," Arte em São
Paulo, No. 2 (October 1981).
Arco 10, held in December 1981, was the second great intervention
that consisted of the installation of 100 meters of yellow polyethylene film on
the viaduct of Dr. Arnaldo Avenue---one of the highest in the city. It was
reported on television by the Globo Network, and in the newspaper Folha de
São Paulo (9 December 1981).
23 Maio, held in 1982, was an installation of four long strips of
red polyethylene film on the grassy area along 23 de Maio Avenue. It was
reported on television by the Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão
(Brazilian Television Network).
7. A company, Plastic Five---Indústria e Comércio de
Plásticos, Ltda, sponsored for many years different projects of the
group with the support of its owner, Da. Guacyra Quinto Malatesta.
8. It is interesting to note that most of the articles covering our
interventions were published in the City News section of the newspapers rather
than the Arts and Culture section.
9. By coincidence, at the same time Mail Art had expanded among artists
searching for a new language beyond traditional supports. Many of our editions
of booklets, leaflets and posters were sent in the form of Mail Art to the most
diverse circles of artists in Brazil and abroad. Some of these editions were:
X-Galeria poster, an unnumbered silk-screen edition with a special
photocopy booklet of newspaper articles about our interventions;
Ensacamento, an off-set printed edition with photos and articles about
the intervention mailed in a special envelope with the seal of the group on it;
Intervenção IV, catalog published with the support of the
Department of Culture of the State of São Paulo, 1981;
Conecção, a photocopied edition with images and articles
about the event in a special envelope with the seal of the group on it.
Editor's note: This material can be examined in the archives of
Rafael França, which were donated to the Museum of Contemporary Art of
the Univ. of São Paulo.---E. Kac, Section Editor.
10."3NÓS3 debates/shows Urban Interventions---Photography as a
Document," presentation at the Lasar Segal Museum, São Paulo (8 March
11. "A Categoria Básica da Comunicação," collectively
written by 3NÓS3, Folha de São Paulo, Ilustrada (18
November 1979) p. 50.
12. The "Evento de Fim de Década," held on 13 December 1979, was a
project conceptualized and produced by the groups Viajou Sem Passaporte
(São Paulo), 3NÓS3 (São Paulo), TIT (Trajer de
Investicaciones Teatrales (Buenos Aires), d'Magrelos (São Paulo) and
others. Catalog edited by the organizers, with support from the São
Paulo State Department of Culture and the School of Communication and Art of
the Univ. of São Paulo.
13. Television Sets, installation realized at the Cooperativa de
Artistas Plásticos (Visual Artists Cooperative), São Paulo. See
Fernando Lemos, "Quadrados Progressivos," Folha de São Paulo,
Ilustrada (26 October 1980) p. 46.
14. Hudinilson Jr. was one of the pioneers in the creation of xerography
courses, as well as the person responsible for the implantation of the "Centro
Xerográfico da Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo." He curated
Arte Xerox Brasil, at the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, May
1984, bringing together nearly 80 artists, representing the greater part of the
production of Xerox Art at the time.
Editor's note: Arte Xerox Brasil, exh. cat. (São
Paulo, 1984) includes articles, a chronology and a bibliography on the artistic
use of photocopy technology in Brazil.---E. Kac, Section Editor.
15. Seventeen artists give their opinions about Xerox Art in Fernando Cerqueira
Lemos, "Xerox," Folha de São Paulo, Visual Arts Section (23
16.At the same time, Rafael França was creating Third
Commentary, sequences of geometric figures that were transformed into
volumes and planes through composition rules used by artists in the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries. (Third Commentary, presented in the show
Áreas e Comentários, also featuring Hudinilson Jr., Mario
Ramiro, Florian Raiss and Cid Galvão, Paço das Artes, São
Paulo, 1982.) Hudinilson Jr., on the other hand, was working exclusively on
staging the body and creating reproductions in various media. One of his images
that became very well known at the time showed the artist's naked body in
coitus with a copy machine that ejaculated copies of this techno-erotic
intercourse. See "As novas imagens da xerox" (The New Images of Xerox), Iris
Foto, No. 325 (São Paulo, 1980) p. 10. This image was also
reproduced in Kac  and Chiarelli .
17. Arte Xerox Brasil .
18.Eduardo Kac, "FAAP mostra os usos da tecnologia em arte" (FAAP Shows Uses
of Technology in Art), Folha de São Paulo,
Informática Section (São Paulo, 13 November 1985) p.
19."Atacantes da madrugada---O 3NÓS3 encerra um ciclo. São Paulo
fica menos surpreendente" (Early Morning invaders---The 3NÓS3 group ends
a cycle. São Paulo becomes less surprising), Visão
(São Paulo, 26 June 1982) pp. 46--47.
20. As these associations did not have commercial potential, at least in the
short term, the get-togethers were based on intellectual solidarity---shared
goals that served to push us beyond the material and other difficulties that
had always existed. This cooperation also served to compensate us for the lack
of interest and recognition shown on the part of most critics, curators and
museum directors. I should mention the support I received from, among others,
the engineer Fernando Landgraf of the Univ. of São Paulo for my first
experiments with magnetism; and also from the art critic and professor Agnaldo
Farias, along with the physics Institute of the Univ. of São Carlos in
the construction of my first magnetic levitator.
21. Arte pelo Telefone---Videotexto, Museu da Imagem e do Som,
São Paulo, 1982; I Mostra de Grafismo em Videotexto, Museu de
Arte de São Paulo, 1983; "Núcleo I" of the Seventeenth Bienal
Internacional de São Paulo," 1983; Clones---uma rede simultânea
de rádio, televisão e videotexto, Museu da Imagem e do Som,
São Paulo, 1983; Arte e Tecnologia, Museum of Contemporary Art,
Univ. of São Paulo, São Paulo, 1984; Arte On Line, Editora
Nobel, São Paulo, 1983, 1985; A Arte na Trama Eletrônica,
Museu de Arte de São Paulo, 1985; Brasil High Tech, Centro
Empresarial do Rio de Janeiro, 1986.
Editor's note: Videotex is an interactive information service
accessed by customers through telephone lines and usually displayed in
low-resolution text and graphics. The system interface is a video monitor
coupled with a keyboard. Videotex use reached a height in the 1980s through
systems such as the well-known French Minitel. For more information on videotex
in the United States, Brazil and France, see John I. Tydeman, Teletext and
Videotex in the United States (New York: McGraw Hill, 1982); Verginio
Zaniboni Netto, Videotexto no Brasil (São Paulo: Nobel, 1986);
and Vidéotex, special issues of Réseaux, Nos. 6 and
7 (April and June 1984). Videotex Art in Brazil in the 1980s will be discussed
in an article by Silvia Laurentiz as part of the Radical Intervention
special project in a future issue of Leonardo.---E. Kac, Section
22. "Núcleo de Arte e Tecnologia" (NAT) in São Paulo (1983--1985)
created by Mario Ramiro, architect José W. Garcia and professor Fredrich
Litto, with the support of CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa,
Brasília) and ABAA (Associação Brasileira de Apoio
Acadêmico); "Instituto de Pesquisa em Arte e Tecnologia" (IPAT) in
São Paulo (1987--1989) with Paulo Laurentiz, Carlos Fadon, Milton
Sogabe, Wilson Sukorski, Anna Barros, Rejane Caetano, Julio Plaza, Laura Alves
and Carlos Dias.
23.One of these works showed the image of a plane being followed by a target
that finally finds it and destroys it. The final image of this work was that of
a cloud of smoke dispersing in the air. Something similar occurred in another
work presented on the same occasion. It showed the image of a cigarette slowly
burning on an ashtray. In this series of images, the passage of time was not
only emphasized by the release of smoke into the atmosphere, but also by the
accumulation of ashes (a body dematerializing).
24. Arte pelo Telefone---Videotexto, curated by Julio Plaza, with
Carmela Gross, Julio Plaza, Leon Ferrari, Lenora de Barros, Mario Ramiro, Omar
Khouri, Paulo Leminski, Régis Bonvicino and Roberto Sandoval. Museu da
Imagem e do Som, December 1982.
25. Clones---uma rede simultânea de rádio, televisão e
videotexto, by Mario Ramiro with architect José W. Garcia, was
broadcast on 26 November 1983 on radio and television by Radio Cultura and TV
Cultura of São Paulo. This event was part of an installation set up at
the Museu da Imagem e do Som, São Paulo. The installation was composed
of nine TV monitors connected to nine different videotex lines carried by
TELESP, the São Paulo State Telephone Company, as well as two TV
monitors to receive the broadcast of the program "Fábrica do Som" of TV
Cultura (Channel 2), and a radio to receive a soundtrack produced by the
musician Conrado Sílva transmitted by Rádio Cultura FM. This
work, theoretically, offered telespectators at home (those who had both a TV
and a videotex terminal) the possibility of setting up their own installations
by synchronizing their radios with the network. A text that attempts to
conceptualize this work, entitled "O labirinto da reprodução"
(The Labyrinth of Reproduction), was published in Folha de São
Paulo, Folhetim No. 361 (São Paulo, 18 December 1983) pp. 6--7. See
also article by Marcelo Leite, "Arte por computador, entre duas
gerações" (Computer Art, Between Two Generations), Iris
Foto, No. 378 (São Paulo, 1985) pp. 69--71.
26. Marcel Duchamps, "3 Standard Stops = Canned Chance (1914)," in Marcel
Duchamp, Pontus Hulten, ed. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993) pp.
27.See Elizabeth Goldring, "Desert Sun/Desert Moon and SKY ART
Manifesto, Leonardo 20, No. 4, 339--348 (1987).
28. Altamira, installation performance by Mario Ramiro, with Laly
Krotoszynski (dance), Jack Jackson and Miguel Barella (pre-recorded music
played from inside the "Sputnik") and Theo Werneck (live percussion).
29. Eduardo Kac, "Arte pelo telefone," O Globo, Segundo Caderno (Rio de
Janeiro, 15 September 1987) p. 1.
30. Sponsored by Gradient of Brazil.
31.Event held and transmitted on 8 April 88 by TV Cultura of São
Paulo on the "Eureka" program between 7 and 9 P.M.
32. Alexandre Martins, "Telearte em rede," published in the newspaper O
Globo, Segundo Caderno (Rio de Janeiro, 9 April 1988).
33.Activities with the support of Itautec.
In 1985, Sheila Leirner, curator of the Eighteenth Bienal de São
Paulo, created what was called "The Large Canvas"---an accumulation of dozens
of European and South American neo-expressionist paintings celebrating the
gestural, placed side by side, in a very long corridor inside the exhibition
pavilion (see photograph of this corridor in Leonor Amarante, As Bienais de
São Paulo/1951 a 1987 (São Paulo: Projeto, 1989) pp.
324--325). Meant to promote the format as an international trend, this
arrangement unwittingly exposed the pictorial sameness imposed by dealers on
both sides of the Atlantic. Many projects involving art and telecommunications
that were presented to the Biennial were refused by the curator. This certainly
represented the loss of a historic opportunity for the Bienal de São
Paulo to showcase original and independent Brazilian media work, rather than
warmed-over local versions of European styles. Leirner's lack of vision and
support for new media art, particularly Brazilian electronic art, broke the
continuity of a more radical and innovative project initiated by Walter Zanini
in the Sixteenth Biennial (Núcleo I, XVI International Biennial of
São Paulo, 1981).
Editor's note: Unfortunately, during her 4-year tenure at the
Bienal, Leirner favored a provincial celebration of revisited and
internationally sanctioned market-driven trends. In 1985 she manifested this
poor vision when she rejected proposals of Brazilian holographic art, alleging
that holography was an art form of the 1970s, and showing North American
holographic art instead. For a critique of Leirner's views on holographic art
in the context of the Eighteenth Bienal, see Décio Pignatari, "Protesto
e Repliquinha," Folha de São Paulo, Ilustrada (9 May 1986); for
documentation on holographic art at the Eighteenth Bienal, see Eduardo Kac,
"Harriet, pioneira na arte do laser, expõe na Bienal," Folha de
São Paulo, Informática (2 October 1985.---E. Kac, Section
35.Entre o Norte e o Sul. Uma conexão entre espírito e
matéria, work published in Günther Uecker, ed., Loma
Kitsi, exh. cat. (Düsseldorf: Kunstakademie Düsseldorf , 1993)
pp. 38--49. This catalog includes texts in Japanese, Portuguese and German.
This work is also cited in Ellen Drünnert, "Die Welt als
Vorstellung---Brasilien als Paradigma neuen Denkens," Via Regia, No. 7
(Thüringen, 1993) pp. 16--18.
Cited by Siegfried Zielinski, "Von Nachrichtenkörpern und
Körpernachrichten: Ein eiliger beutezug durch zwei Jahrtausende
Mediengeschichte" (On News Bodies and Body News: A Quick Overview of Two
Millennia of Media History), in Vom Verschwinden der Ferne
-TeleKommunikation und Kunst (On the Disappearance of Distance: Art and
Telecommunications) (Köln: DuMont, 1990) p. 251.
John McCrone, "Cientistas ainda procuram evidências para a
telepatia," translation published in Folha de São Paulo
(São Paulo, 13 June 1993) pp. 6--14.
Editor's note: This article was originally published as "Roll Up for
the Telepathy Test," New Scientist (15 May 1993) p. 29.---E. Kac,
38.Level 5 was organized by Mario Ramiro and the architect José
W. Garcia, Museu de Arte de São Paulo, 22 November to 2 December 1984.
All the works in this show were created with CAD-CAM software by Intergraph
(now Sysgraph) on a VAX 11750 superminicomputer, with resolution of 1024 x 1048
pixels and 620 simultaneous colors. Level 5 was named after the
subdirectory where this project was stored. It brought together the works of
Alfredo Volpi, Augusto de Campos, Claudio Tozzi, Guto Lacaz, José W.
Garcia, Lenore de Barros, Mario Ramiro and Nina Moraes.
This installation was part of the show Áreas e Comentários
II at Paço das Artes, São Paulo, 1984, which included
Hudinilson Jr., Rafael França, Cid Galvão and Florian
40.Work presented in the show 3NÓS3/3 anos, Pinacoteca do Estado
de São Paulo, 1982, along with work by Hudinilson Jr. and Rafael
França. A variation of this series, done in steel cables tightly
stretched in space, was presented at the show Áreas e
Comentários, Paço das Artes, São Paulo, 1982. Drawings
from this series were shown in the exhibition Artemicro, São
Paulo, Museu da Imagem e do Som, 1982, organized by Regina Silveira and Rafael
França and including several artists' works stored and shown on
Editor's note: Microfiche is a sheet of microfilm capable of storing
a large number of printed pages at a very small size. See Regina Silveira,
"Artemicro: a microficha como suporte da arte" (Artemicro: Microfiche as
Support), Arte em São Paulo, No. 7 (May 1982).---E. Kac,
41.One of the first and most important analyses of this problem, published in
the early part of the century, was written in 1929 by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy in his
book Von material zu architektur (Mainz: Florian Kupferberg Verlag,
42.Work presented for the first time in the show A virada do século
XX, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, 1986. See Mario Ramiro,
"Gravidade Zero, uma nova dimensão para o Objeto" (Zero Gravity: A New
Dimension for the Object), in Anna Carboncini, ed., A Virada do
Século XX (São Paulo: Paz e Terra/Ed. da Unesp, 1987) pp.
107--111. See also Leão Cerva, "A escultura liberta da base," Folha
de São Paulo, Ilustrada (30 November 1986).
43. Moholy-Nagy .
44.Travel grant provided by DAAD (German Academic Interchange Service) for the
development of the project "Campo de Força"(Force Field), along with the
Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, under the orientation of Nan Hoover. I
received this grant thanks to the support of Vilém Flusser (1920--1991),
Walter Zanini and Gottfried Jäger.
45.August Toepler, Beobachtungen nach einer neuen optischen Methode
(Observations from a New Optical Method) (Bonn: Cohen, 1894); also published in
the journal Ostwalds Klassiker des exacten Wissenschaften (Ostwald
Classics of Exact Sciences), No. 157 (Leipzig, 1906). A more in-depth method
was utilized later by Hubert Schardin, "Die Grundlagen einer exakten Anwendung
und quantitativen Auswertung der Toeplerschen Schlieren methode" (Principles
for Correct Application and Measurement of Toepler's Schlieren Photography
Method) (Berlin, 1934).
46.I had the support of Dieter Jung, Jürgen Klauke, Urs Friez and Heiko
47.I had the support of Dieter Jung, Jürgen Klauke, Urs Friez and Heiko
48.Hans Biedermann, Knaurs Lexikon der Symbole (Knaurs Dictionary of
Symbols) (München: Broemer Knaur, 1989) p. 382.
Editor's note: In Greek mythology the name "Atlas" refers to a Titan
condemned by Zeus to support the heavens upon his shoulders. In this piece the
artist is drawing analogies between ancient Greek and Chinese cultures.---E.
Kac, Section Editor.
Work presented for the first time in the show Hautlabor---für neue
Strategien im grenzbereich von Architektur und Kunst (Skinlab---For New
Strategies between Art and Architecture), Tom Fecht, curator, Kehrwiederspitze,
Between Form and Force